Colorectal Cancer – Why Colon Cancer Occurs, Symptoms, Types and Treatment, Medication

Our digestive system breaks down food and assimilates its nutrients. The esophagus (food pipe), stomach (stomach), small intestine, and large intestine make up the digestive system. The large intestine begins at the colon, which is about 5 feet long, and ends at the rectum and anus.

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The colon and rectum’s wall is made up of four layers of tissue. When cells in the body begin to grow out of control, cancer results. The deepest layer of the large intestine’s wall is where colorectal cancer first appears. Most colorectal cancers begin with small polyps. These polyps are a group of cells. Some of these polyps eventually turn cancerous. This cancer spreads first to the wall of the large intestine, then to nearby lymph nodes, and then throughout the body.

What is Colon (Colorectal) Cancer?

Cancer that develops in the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. Depending on where the disease first appears, it may also go by the names colon cancer or rectal cancer. Because they share many characteristics, rectal cancer and colon cancer are sometimes classed together.

The large intestine, or colon, is the big bowel. The rectum serves as the conduit between the colon and the anus. The colon and rectum together make up the large intestine, which is part of the digestive system, also called the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The colon, a muscular tube that is roughly 5 feet (1.5 m) length, makes up the majority of the large intestine. it occurs. The colon is the part of the body through which food travels.

Most colorectal cancers begin in a growth on the inner lining of the colon or rectum. These growths are called polyps. Some types of polyps can turn into cancer over time (usually several years), but not all polyps become cancerous. The type of polyp will determine the risk that it will develop into cancer.

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Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal Cancer does not always have any symptoms, especially in the beginning, but if symptoms do appear, they may include:

Change in bowel habits.
Blood in your stools.
Diarrhoea, constipation, or a feeling that the bowels do not empty completely.
Cramping or soreness in the abdomen that won’t go away.
Weight loss without any reason.

Consult your physician if you have any of these symptoms. Keep in mind that these can be caused by something other than cancer.

Types of Colorectal Cancer.

Adenocarcinoma is the most prevalent kind of colorectal cancer. These tumours start in the cells that produce the mucus that coats the colon and the rectum.

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Other, less common types of tumors can also start in the colon and rectum. Contains: –

1. Carcinoid Tumour

It starts with special hormone-producing cells in the intestine.

2. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour

Interstitial cells of Cajal are specialised cells found in the colon’s wall that give rise to GISTs. Some are benign (not cancerous). These tumours can develop anywhere throughout the digestive tract, although the colon is rarely where they do.

3. Lymphoma

These are cancers of the cells of the immune system. Although they might begin in the colon, rectum, or other organs, they most frequently begin in the lymph nodes.

4. Sarcoma

It can start in blood vessels, layers of muscle, or other connective tissue in the wall of the colon and rectum. They are rare in the colon or rectum.

Risk factors for Colorectal Cancer

The risk of colorectal cancer increases with age. Other risk factors include-

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Inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.

Colorectal cancer or polyps in one’s family or on one’s own body.

A genetic syndrome such as 8familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome).

Lifestyle factors that contribute to an increased risk of colorectal cancer include:

Lack of regular physical activity.

A fruit and vegetable-poor diet.

A diet low in fiber and high in fat, or a diet high in processed meats.

Overweight and obesity.

Alcohol abuse.

Tobacco use.

Preventions For Colorectal Cancer

1. Screening

The most effective way to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer is to have regular colorectal cancer screenings, starting at age 45.
Almost all colorectal cancer begins as precancerous polyps (abnormal growths) in the colon or rectum. Years may pass before aggressive cancer manifests in such polyps in the colon. In the beginning it does not show any symptoms.
Screening for colorectal cancer can detect precancerous polyps so they can be removed before they turn into malignant cancer. In this way, colorectal cancer can be prevented.

2. Diet

It has been told in some research that what food would be right in colorectal cancer. As a primary source of protein, fish and plant sources; Unsaturated fat as the primary source of fat; and whole grains, pulses, and fruits are the primary sources of carbohydrates most likely to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Recommended nutrition guidelines for reducing colon cancer risk include lack of fat, adequate amounts of fruits, vegetables, and calcium, and Prevention of overweight is also included. According to one study, eating brown rice at least once a week can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by 40%. A higher intake of dairy products and calcium is associated with a lower risk of colon cancer.

3. Aspirin

Taking aspirin (ASA) regularly after being diagnosed with colon cancer may be associated with a lower risk of dying from this cancer, especially in people with COX-2 overexpression tumors.
For women, medications such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and postmenopausal hormones may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, according to one study.

4. Healthy Lifestyle

Some studies suggest that people can reduce their risk of developing colorectal cancer by increasing physical activity, limiting alcohol consumption, and avoiding tobacco.

How to Diagnose Colorectal Cancer?

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1. Blood Test to Diagnose Colorectal Cancer

Your doctor may also do some blood tests to see if you have colorectal cancer. These tests may also be used to help monitor your disease if you are diagnosed with cancer.
There can be many types of blood tests in this, such as –
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Liver enzymes
Tumor markers
Fecal occult blood test (FOBT)

2. Diagnostic Colonoscopy to Diagnose Colorectal Cancer

A diagnostic colonoscopy is similar to a screening colonoscopy in that it is used because a person has symptoms, or another type of screening test finds something abnormal. For this test, the doctor views the entire length of the colon and rectum with a colonoscope, a thin, flexible, lighted tube with a tiny video camera on the end.
It is introduced into the colon and rectum through the anus. Special instruments can be passed through the colonoscope to biopsy or, if necessary, remove any suspicious-looking areas, such as polyps.

3. Proctoscopy to Diagnose Colorectal Cancer

This test may be done if rectal cancer is suspected. For this test, the doctor looks inside the rectum with a proctoscope, a thin, rigid, lighted tube with a tiny video camera on the end. It is inserted through the anus.

4. Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan to Diagnose Colorectal Cancer

X-rays are used in a CT scan to produce finely detailed cross-sectional images of your body. This test can help tell whether colorectal cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes or to your liver, lungs, or other organs.

5. Chest X-Ray to Diagnose Colorectal Cancer

After a diagnosis of colorectal cancer, an X-ray may be done to see if the cancer has spread to the lungs, but more often a CT scan of the lungs is done because it gives a more detailed picture.

Treatments for Colorectal Cancer

1. Surgery

For colorectal cancer in the early stages, surgery is frequently the major therapy. The kind of surgery is determined by the cancer’s stage (extent), location inside the colon, and surgical intent.
Any sort of colon surgery must be performed on an empty, clear colon. Before surgery you will be put on a special diet and need to use laxative drinks and/or enemas to get all the stool out of your colon.

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2. Ablation and Embolization for Colorectal Cancer.

When colon or rectal cancer has spread and there are some small tumors in the liver or lungs, these metastases can sometimes be removed by surgery or destroyed by other techniques such as ablation or embolization. Ablation or embolization may be used to destroy small tumors in place.

3. Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy is a treatment using high-energy rays (such as X-rays) or particles to destroy cancer cells. It is used to treat rectal cancer than colon cancer. For some colon and rectal cancers, radiation therapy may work better than treatment with chemotherapy at the same time. Using these two elements together is called chemoradiation.

4. Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy (chemo) is treatment with anti-cancer drugs that can be injected into a vein or taken by mouth. These drugs travel through the bloodstream and reach most parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is frequently treated with chemotherapy.

5. Immunotherapy

Drugs are used in immunotherapy to enhance a person’s own immune system’s capacity to detect and eliminate cancer cells. Immunotherapy may be used to treat some people with advanced colorectal cancer.

6. Medicines

There are many drugs that are used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of America has approved many medicines.

For example, there are some medicines for colorectal cancer –

  1. Avastin (bevacizumab)
  2. Bevacizumab
  3. Camptosar (irinotecan hydrochloride)
  4. Capecitabine
  5. Cetuximab
  6. Cyramza (ramucirumab)
  7. Stivarga (regorafenib)

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Keep in mind that do not consume any medicine or drug without the opinion of the doctor.

(Disclaimer: This article is for general information only. It is just to wake you up for your health purpose. Out intension is not to mislead or It cannot in any way be a substitute for any medicine or treatment. Always contact your doctor for more details.)

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