Schizophrenia: Causes, Symptoms, Types, Treatment and Prevention

Schizophrenia is a Greek word meaning ‘split mind’. Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that describes a mental disorder in a person. A person suffering from this disorder has difficulty in expressing reality or his point of view and they face problems both socially and professionally. Individuals suffering from schizophrenia usually live in confusion and confusion.

Since it is a chronic mental illness, the number of cases per year is very low, but many people are currently suffering from the condition. A lot of misconceptions exist within society about schizophrenia. Explain that schizophrenia does not mean that you have a split personality or that you have multiple personality disorder. People with schizophrenia are neither dangerous nor violent, their behavior is similar to that of the general population.

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Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness in which a person has seizures at frequent intervals. Various bio-psycho-social strategies can be used to help people with schizophrenia lead a better life. With good support, therapy and treatment, people can see a lot of improvement in their behavior and lead healthier lives.

Exploring Schizophrenia

1. Paranoid Schizophrenia

In paranoid schizophrenia, the sufferer has a lot of doubt, obsession or delusion and in such a situation he starts doing what he thinks is right. A person suffering from this condition may behave strangely and have perturbed emotional reactions and may have little or no involvement with normal life.

2. Catatonic Schizophrenia

A person suffering from catatonic schizophrenia becomes completely blunt mentally, physically and emotionally, not only that, he has little or no facial expression. For example, they cannot last long. He does not have the urge to eat, drink or urinate. Sometimes the catatonia lasts for several hours, due to which they have to go to the hospital.

3. Undifferentiated

In undefined schizophrenia, a person has a variety of symptoms that fit into more than one type of schizophrenia.

4. Hebephrenic

This is the form of schizophrenia in which symptoms like emotional changes, delusions and changes in behavior, unresponsive and unpredictable behavior are quite common within the patient. The mind of these patients is always depressed and never matches with the current situation. Although the patient can sometimes boast, grin, mischief and repeat what you have said.

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What are the Symptoms of Schizophrenia?, Causes and Symptoms, Preventive Strategies

People with schizophrenia can have a variety of symptoms. It may come on its own or it may go away on its own. Apart from this, these symptoms can occur only two or three times in the whole lifetime. Early in the disease, symptoms can be sudden and severe.

During the psychotic phase, the patient can perceive reality in several parts. These symptoms can appear in everyday life. These symptoms may also appear during essential activities such as working, eating, or moving around. In some severe cases, activities such as work may also appear limited.

The Symptoms seen in the Psychotic phase are:

1- The victim will see, hear, feel or smell some things but they are not real.

2- There is a state of confusion, where strange things are felt, which are absolutely false.

3- The thought in the mind of the victim suddenly goes from one place to another.

4- Not feeling the appropriate feelings, thoughts and mood with the current situation.

People with schizophrenia also experience these things:

1- Showing lots of energy at one time or becoming catatonic. This is a condition in which the body becomes very rigid.
2- Speaking such things, about which there is no understanding.
3- Do not wash hands and feet and keep yourself in the right way.
4- Keep yourself isolated.
5- Losing the ability to work or perform other activities in crowded workplaces.
6- Showing less interest in life.
7- Appearing symptoms of depression or change in mood.
8- Being physically inactive.

What are the Causes and Risk factors?

1. Cause

There is no single cause. Certain factors such as environmental and genetic are believed to contribute behind the condition. The main reason behind Schizophrenia is genetic and for this condition the relatives of the patient suffering from mental illness are also seen suffering from the same disease. However, there are other neurological factors that contribute to the condition. Psychological and family environment may also play a role in the onset and recovery of schizophrenia.

2. Risk Factors.

The lifetime chance of developing is about 1%. Therefore it can be said that only one person out of a hundred has to face a condition like schizophrenia in his lifetime. This condition is equally prevalent in both men and women. In males, this disease is usually found between the ages of 10 to 25 years while in females this condition is more commonly seen between the ages of 25 to 35 years.

Drug abuse can also be an important cause of schizophrenia. People who use drugs are six times more likely to develop schizophrenia than non-drug users.

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What is Prevention?

A condition like schizophrenia cannot be prevented, although some measures can be taken to reduce its risk. Risk factors such as substance use and stress can also contribute to schizophrenia, so avoiding these also lowers the risk of a schizophrenia-like condition. Early detection of the disease and proper care can prevent it from progressing.

How to Diagnose?

There is no definite medical test to diagnose this condition. Schizophrenia is diagnosed only by looking at the patient’s case history and his mental condition. Full psychiatric evaluation, evaluation of medical history and physical tests are done to detect this disease. Lab tests are also used to detect any symptoms in the patient.

Important things about detecting

To be diagnosed, a patient must have two or more of the following symptoms for at least 30 days:

1- Having bad dreams
2- Confusion
3- Difficulty in speaking
4- Catatonic behavior
5- Use of negative or indifferent words

Other Criteria for Diagnosing the Disease are:

1. Significant problems relating to other people at work or school, or problems taking care of themselves.

2. Symptoms of schizophrenia for the past six months with active symptoms for at least one month.

3. Addiction or a mental health disorder can also cause symptoms even if there is no other health problem.

What is Treatment?

If this disease is identified and controlled in the beginning itself, then the treatment of schizophrenia can be useful. Along with medications, social and community support is proven to be effective in treatment. Sending patients to hospitals or mental health institutions can help stop the progression of the disease. The support of family members also proves to be very useful in preventing the progression of the disease.

Medication prescribed for schizophrenia usually helps reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as nightmares, delusions, hallucinations, and confused thinking. Pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia has evolved over the years and very effective drugs are available for the treatment of schizophrenia. These drugs are also useful for treating symptoms such as lack of motivation, lack of expression, and lack of social engagement, along with psychotherapy.

This therapy proves helpful in controlling stress and improving communication as well as improving life skills. Sometimes group therapy also helps by connecting groups with similar symptoms.

These changes in lifestyle help in recovering

1. Social support is also very important.

Suggest ways for the patient to connect with friends and family to calm down and reduce stress. It is also beneficial to stay connected with others while continuing with your daily activities. Spending time with normal looking people is also beneficial. People with schizophrenia feel good about themselves by being connected.

2. Learn to Manage Stress

It helps in reducing the stress caused by schizophrenia by increasing the body’s production of cortisol hormone. Relaxation practices are also very helpful in reducing stress.

3. Exercise

Exercise has been shown to increase focus and energy and help patients feel calmer. Activities such as walking, running, swimming, or dancing for just 30 minutes a day can help reduce symptoms.

4. Get proper sleep

Regular sleep cycle helps in keeping the mood fresh. The patient is advised to sleep for more than eight hours.

5. Avoid taking drugs

Drugs, nicotine and alcohol can help to increase the symptoms of schizophrenia. Not only this, they also create obstacles in the way of treatment of some medicines.

6. Make a habit of eating healthy

Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil, walnuts and flaxseeds can help improve your focus, prevent fatigue, and balance mood. Eating at right intervals and including nutritious foods in the diet can help in maintaining adequate nutrition in the body.

What is Prognosis and Complications?

Schizophrenia is a lifelong health condition for which there is currently no cure. However, many of the health conditions and symptoms associated with this disorder can be managed with the right treatment, therapy, education, and support. People with schizophrenia can have strong relationships, go to school or work, and lead healthy lives, just like other people.


If this condition is left untreated or proper help is not given, then the disease can have the following consequences:

1- Decrease in thinking, reasoning and memory
2- Suicidal thoughts
3- Depression
Financial problems due to inability to work
4- Relationship ending, losing connection
5- Living in solitude
6- Aggressive behavior


Q.1 : What does a person do?

Ans. : Schizophrenia usually involves delusions (false beliefs), hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that don’t exist), unusual physical behavior, and disorganized thinking and speech. It is common for people with schizophrenia to have paranoid thoughts or hear voices.

Q. 2 : What is the main cause?

Ans: The exact causes of schizophrenia are unknown. Research suggests a combination of physical, genetic, psychological and environmental factors can make a person more likely to develop the condition. Some people may be prone to schizophrenia, and a stressful or emotional life event might trigger a psychotic episode.

Q. 3 : What are the top 10 signs?

Ans : You could be diagnosed with schizophrenia if you experience some of the following symptoms.

  • Hallucinations.
  • Delusions.
  • Disorganised thinking.
  • Lack of motivation.
  • Slow movement.
  • Change in sleep patterns.
  • Poor grooming or hygiene.
  • Changes in body language and emotions.

Q. 4 : Can schizophrenia be cured?

Ans : While this condition cannot be cured, it can be successfully treated. Antipsychotic medications are crucial for managing symptoms. Medications are most important in treatment for schizophrenia, but patients are also helped by therapy, lifestyle changes, social support and services, and self-management.

(Disclaimer :  The purpose of this health-related article is to wake you up and aware of your health and to provide health-related information. Your doctor has a better understanding of your health and there is no substitute for their advice.)

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